Boron Turkey



Boron Market trend Occurrence    

Turkey Exports Boron


Turkey, which has the most boron reserves of the world, exports boron to 67 countries.

Turkey Boron exporters, suppliers, manufacturers, factories and related to boron ( New )

Boron Turkiye 15 04 2014



During the last 30 years the production has mainly been carried out  in Russia, Turkey and USA,Rio Tinto Borax and Eti Maden İsletmeleri  Genel Mudurlugu being the two major producers.


In 1970’s the total boron    production of the world was 750.000-800.000 t/y on B2O3 basis with the shares of 16% Turkey , 67% USA. In 1978 the quantity was 1.242.000 t/y  with the shares of 27% Turkey, 56.8% USA and in 2001 33.4% of the total 1.546.000 tons B2O3 was produced by Turkey while the share of USA was 42%.


Output started to rise in Argentina and China in mid 1980’s. Despite the downturns in output in early 1980’s and 1990’s caused by the economic recessions the total world boron mineral output increased fairly steadily. Much of the growth in production was due to the increase in Turkish output from 300.000 tons to about 1.500.000 tons in 30 years.The US production of boron minerals remained relatively steady in this period. The total share of the two main suppliers, Turkey and USA, dropped to 75%  in 2001 from 83 % in 1970’s although the share of Turkey increased by the new refined borate plants put in operation. The difference supplied by the increasing production capacities of South American countries and China.


On gross ton basis Turkey is at the first rank but USA is the largest producer in terms of boron oxide . boron boron türkiye


World Boron Production, 2001 (t B2O3)

Country Quantity % Share
USA 650.000 42
Argentina 61.000 4
Turkey 517.000 33.4
China 110.000 7.1
Russia 60.000 4
Kazakhstan 12.000 0.8
Chili 119.000 7.7
Others 17.000 1
TOTAL 1.546.000 100

There are five producers of primary borates and boron chemicals in USA with a total nameplate capacity of 955.630 tpy on B2O3 basis.

USA Nameplate Production Capacities by Company, 2000 (t B2O3)

Company Capacity
US Borax 798.323
IMC Chemicals 99.791
In Cide Technologies 33.929
American Borate Company (ABC) 19.958
Fort Cady Minerals 3.629
TOTAL 955.630


  Among these companies US Borax is the largest with the annual production nameplate capacities of 250.000 tons boric acid, 900.000 tons borax pentahdyrate, 80.000 tons decahydrate, 25.000  tons anhydrous borax and 5-10.000 tons anhydrous boric acid.The combined borate and boron product nameplate capacity of the second biggest producer IMC is around 100.000 t/y. This comprises boric acid, pyrobor,  anhydrous borax, V-Bor and the speciality boron products. The soda ash and boron products operations of IMC Chemicals at Searles Lake was purchased by Sun Capital Partners, Inc. and the company changed name to Searles Valley Minerals Inc.
IMC’s speciality borates plant , Larderello Italy was purchased by Tuscan Stars GSA, LLC and some of its affiliates. American Borate Company produces colemanite from Billie mine and synthetic colemanite named Cadycal 100 is produced by Fort Cady Minerals Corporation.


The other main boron producers of the world are Argentina, Chile, China, Peru and Russia.


In Argentina there are three main producers one of them, Borax Argentina, being owned  by Rio Tinto.The borates occur as tincal and ulexite. The total production in 2001 was 360.000tons in gross weight and 61.000 tons in B2O3 content.


The principal mineral in Chile is ulexite and the main product is boric acid. Total production in 2001 was 340.000 tons in gross weight.


In China there are a large number of boron producer companies with small capacities.The mineral is mainly ascharite and boro-magnesite. Chinese total nameplate capacity is 234.000 t/y borax, 91.300 t/y boric acid, 20.200 t/y sodium perborate and 24.800 t/y special boron products mainly ferroboron.


Small quantities of boron minerals have been mined in Peru mainly ulexite and colemanite with nameplate capacities of 120.000 t/y and 8000 t/y respectively and the main boron product is boric acid. Calcined ulexite and boric acid are also produced with the nameplate capacities of 20.000 t/y and 25.000 t/y.


In Russia datolite is the naturally occured boron source at Dalnegorsk. JSC Energomash-Bor is the only boron mineral and boric acid producer in Russia. The company has a mining nameplate capacity of 1.3Mtpy and the boric acid capacity is estimated as 170.000 t/y. In  the year 2000 700.000 tons of boron minerals and 70.000 tons of boric acid was produced by this company.


The only commercial boron hydrates and associated boron products company of CIS is JSC Aviabor. JSC Aviabor is a privately owned company in Russia producing mainly high-tech boron compounds Many organoboron boron compounds are produced by this company and many of them can also be custom synthesized upon demand. Boron Turkey




Turkey’s boron production capacity is given in Table. Operating the world’s largest reserves Turkey has 1.870.000 t/y nameplate capacity of natural borates and 817.000 t/y of boron products.  


Turkey Borate and Boron Chemicals Nameplate Capacities, 2003

Place Product

Nameplate Capacity (000 t/y))

Raw Refined
Kirka Tincal 800  
-BDH(1)   17


-AB(1)   60
Bandirma -BDH+BPH   55
-SPB   20
-Boric Acid   85
Bigadiç Colemanite 200  
Ulexite 200  

Ground Colemanite

Emet Colemanite 500  
-Boric Acid   100
Kestelek Colemanite 100  
TOTAL   1870 817


(1)     :No Production.

BDH   :Borax Decahydrate

BPH   :Borax Pentahydrate

AB     :Anhydrous Borax

SPB   :Sodium Perborate (Tetrahydrate and Monohydrate)


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Since there is a limited amount of published statistics about boron consumption or world demand the consumption by region and end-use applications are based on estimations.


Although the borates are used in a  wide range, the principal application area is the glass industry. 43% of the world total borate consumption is estimated to be consumed in this industry. The detergents market is estimated to consume 17 %, enamels, frits and glazes about 12 % and fertilizers about 5 %.


On regional basis Western Europe is the largest market for borates consuming 46% of the total in terms of B2O3 followed by North America 25%, Asia 11% and Latin America 10%.


Regional consumption by end-use varies considerably. The North American glass industry accounts for an estimated 44 % of the boron consumed in this industry world-wide, while in Europe detergents market accounts for 75 % of the world-wide consumption in this application.


US demand for boron products is the largest of the world depending on the domestic boron products industry developed. According to the data obtained from USGS sources in 2000 360.400 tons of boron products were consumed in USA on B2O3 basis mainly in fiberglass industry.


In 2001 347.000 tons of 536.000 tons production and in 2002 359.000 tons of 518.000 tons production were consumed domestically in USA.


Being one of the biggest producers the domestic consumption in Turkey is very small. Except sodium perborate consumed  by detergents industry,  in 2000 16.700tons, in 2001 15.500 tons and in 2002 18.400 tons of boron products on B2O3 basis consumed domestically in glass and ceramics industries.


Depending on the economies of production or  environmental regulations in some industries the use of borax is decreased gradually and in some industries completely abondoned. One example is the “ Advantex ” developed by Owens Corning which is a boron free glass formulation as a replacement of E-glass.The other example is the  switch to sodium percarbonate from sodium perborate which also effects the consumption of borax pentahydrate considerably. As a result of this switch the consumption of borates in detergents sector in Western Europe decreased to 27% in 2001 from 35% in 1991


In the wealth and development of a country, mining activities have great significance. They contribute the most added value to the economy of a country. Developed countries owe much of their prosperity to their mineral resources and utilizing them efficiently. Turkey has substantial mineral reserves such as boron, marble, trona, chromium and some other industrial raw materials which make the country rich in terms of mining resources. Turkey holds approximately a 72% share of the total boron deposits of the world at 803 million tonnes. Eti Holding, being the most important producer, possesses 31% of total world production on a B2O3 basis. These boron reserves are high in tenor and quality. Also, 60% of the boron reserves is sufficient to supply 250-500 years of the world's boron consumption. The most important boron minerals that Turkey owns are tincal, colemanite, and ulexite. Turkey is the second highest producer of boron after the USA. Eight percent of its boron minerals is used domestically, and 92% is exported. With regard to the situation in the USA, the pattern is the opposite. While 60-65% of boron reserves are used indigenously, the rest of the reserves are exported. Turkey's total income from boron export was 192 million US$ in 2002 and was 213 million US$ in 2003. Turkey targets 254 million US$ income for the year 2004, and 295 million US$ for the year 2005.


Boron exists naturally as 19.78% 10B isotope and 80.22% 11B isotope. High-purity crystalline boron may be prepared by the vapor phase reduction of boron trichloride or tribromide with hydrogen on electrically heated filaments. The impure or amorphous, boron, a brownish-black powder, can be obtained by heating the trioxide with magnesium powder.

Boron of 99.9999% purity has been produced and is available commercially. Elemental boron has an energy band gap of 1.50 to 1.56 eV, which is higher than that of either silicon or germanium.

Optical characteristics include transmitting portions of the infrared. Boron is a poor conductor of electricity at room temperature but a good conductor at high temperature.

Amorphous boron is used in pyrotechnic flares to provide a distinctive green color, and in rockets as an igniter.

By far the most commercially important boron compound in terms of dollar sales is Na2B4O7.5H2O. This pentahydrate is used in very large quantities in the manufacture of insulation fiberglass and sodium perborate bleach.

Boric acid is also an important boron compound with major markets in textile products. Use of borax as a mild antiseptic is minor in terms of dollars and tons. Boron compounds are also extensively used in the manufacture of borosilicate glasses. Other boron compounds show promise in treating arthritis.

The isotope boron-10 is used as a control for nuclear reactors, as a shield for nuclear radiation, and in instruments used for detecting neutrons. Boron nitride has remarkable properties and can be used to make a material as hard as diamond. The nitride also behaves like an electrical insulator but conducts heat like a metal.

It also has lubricating properties similar to graphite. The hydrides are easily oxidized with considerable energy liberation, and have been studied for use as rocket fuels. Demand is increasing for boron filaments, a high-strength, lightweight material chiefly employed for advanced aerospace structures.

Boron is similar to carbon in that it has a capacity to form stable covalently bonded molecular networks. Carbonates, metalloboranes, phosphacarboranes, and other families comprise thousands of compounds.

Crystalline boron (99%) costs about $5/g. Amorphous boron costs about $2/g.

Elemental boron and the borates are not considered to be toxic, and they do not require special care in handling. However, some of the more exotic boron hydrogen compounds are definitely toxic and do require care.

Boron Turkey


1- Technical Program Highlights

a) Balikesir Borate Deposits

Turkey is the largest producer of boron ore in the world. Important boron minerals of Turkey are tincal, colemanite and ulexite. Boron minerals contain different amount of B2O3 in their structures. The important factor for industrial application of boron minerals are B2O3 content, so they can replace each other in use . This means that one boron mineral can be trade competitor the other one. Boron minerals can be used in some sectors in the industry as crude minerals. In general, their applications after refining and as end-products are wider than crude ones. Borates find use in different sectors, however the principal markets are: agriculture, detergents and soaps, flame retardants, glass, glazes, frits , enamels and insulation.

Turkey, USA and Russia have the important boron mines. In terms of total reserves, Turkey has a share of 64%, and the USA has 9%. Total proven world boron reserves on the basis of B2O3 content are 363 million tons; 522 million tons are probable and possible, for a grand total as a total of 885 million tons. Turkey has total boron reserves of 563 million tons on the basis of B2O3 content .

Borate mineral deposits of Turkey are found in Neogene lacustrine sediments and are estimated to be over two billion tons; main deposits are in Eskisehir, Kütahya and Balikesir provinces. Presently all operations are owned by Etibank under Law No.2172 enacted in 1978. All existing mining titles are owned by Etibank, under law. However newly discovered deposits of boron minerals can be operated by new title holders. Turkey is an exporter of boron minerals and boron chemicals. Turkey’s borate mineral resources, the largest known deposits in the world, are under state monopoly and are developed compatible with market demand and are operated profitably. However, state-operated hardcoal operation’s losses generally wipe out all of the profit made by other state-owned primary mining operations and, as such, is a continuous drain on the Turkish economy.

b-Afyon Marble deposits

Turkey has a large quantity of marble reserves which include a wide range of colors. Among more than 100 varieties of Turkish marble are shades ranging from very light gray to black and brilliant white.

Some world-famous marble varieties are Afyon White, Afyon Tigerskin, Bilecik Pink, Marmara White, Burdur Brown, Denizli Travertine, Elazig Cherry, Karacabey Black, Golpazari Beige, Milas Kavaklidere, Aeagan Bordeaux, Aksehir Black, Thracian Granite and Ayvalik Granite. In addition, Turkish marble has a quality which can compete easily with all other world-wide marbles.

Turkey has a 40% share of world marble reserves. The total reserves, including proven, probable and possible reserves, are about 5 billion m 3. Important marble reserves are found in Afyon, Bilecik, Burdur, Denizli, Mugla, Elazig, Balikesir and Eskisehir. In Turkey, annual block-marble production is around 1200 thousand tons, and the production of tiles and slabs is around 13 million square meters.

Recently, granite has been widely used in Turkey. It is extensively used for the inner and outer decorations of buildings because of its appearance, durability against external conditions and high resistance to wear. Turkey has large granite reserves in many cities, such as Ordu, Rize, Trabzon, Balikesir, Kirklareli, Kirsehir Bolu, Izmit, Canakkale and Izmir.

Modern production equipment and methods have been very important factors in the development of the natural-stone industry in Turkey. The increase in production, the vitality of the construction sector in the domestic market, and the presence of new technologies have contributed to widespread use of natural stones as a construction material.

The natural stone sector in Turkey has developed rapidly in the last ten years. Total natural stone exports were 186 million dollars in 2000. Processed marble ranks first, with 136 million dollars in exports. Block marble takes second place with 29 million dollars.

In 2000, major markets for Turkish processed natural-stones exports were the USA, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Italy, Germany, the Russian Federation and Taiwan .

c-Magnesite Deposits

Boron compounds may have been known for about 6000 years, starting with the Babylonians. The Egyptians, Chinese, Tibetans and Arabians are reported to have

Turkey has one of the largest magnesite deposits in the world. According to 2001 data in Turkish mining import associations, Table 1 shows magnesite reserves of Turkey in comparison with other countries in the world. Magnesite occurs in three major types in Turkey... boron turkey

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15 Nisan 2014 Salı